Café Onda offers this three-part series on equity in funding for Latinx theatre companies. Each theatremaker, from different geographical regions, provides their perspective on obtaining grant dollars while large established institutions in their cities are vying for the same resources. The first article is by Armando Molina, Artistic Director of Company of Angels in Los Angeles.—Gregory Ramos, series curator.

I have been pondering the state of culturally specific theatres in Los Angeles, California for quite some time. With an administration hostile to the arts, I am especially disheartened. Latinx theatres in Los Angeles are struggling. They are under-funded, priced out of spaces, and do not receive the press attention of other theatres in Los Angeles. And yet their importance and necessity in Los Angeles far outweigh the resources they have to realize their missions. The theatres in Los Angeles that include the production of works by and for Latinx people as at least part of their mission are Latino Theater Company, Casa 0101, Bilingual Foundation of the Arts, Playwrights Arena, Teatro Frida Kahlo Theater, and Company of Angels Theater (where I am Artistic Director).

One reason that the existence of these theatres is so important is that the County of Los Angeles is over 48.4 percent Latino and 26 percent White. Yet the two major regional theatres located in the County serve almost exclusively white audiences—as evidenced in their season selections—thus ignoring Latinx and other underrepresented groups. A recent article published on provides data on the gender and racial makeup of playwrights in the fifty-year history of the Mark Taper Forum, one venue of The Center Theater Group. Of the two hundred and ninety-eight plays produced, two hundred and forty-nine were written by white authors (only thirty-three of these female). Yet only twelve of the two hundred and ninety-eight plays produced were written by Latinx playwrights. The LA County Arts Commission has recently released their Cultural Equity and Inclusion Initiative which states: "While Los Angeles County has invested in arts and culture for more than a century, there are concerns that all County residents do not have equal and meaningful access to the arts and the benefits they provide.” The report also states that “Program decision are driven by ticket sales and diverse cultural offerings are not financially viable.”

Adding to the lack of diverse representation, a growing number of plays presented at regional theatres here are first produced in New York. While that model provides audiences in Los Angeles with a recent popular and critically acclaimed product, most of these reflect white US American culture. At the same time, such plays take up slots in production seasons that might, in an alternative model, provide production opportunities for local Latinx writers and other writers of color, which would more accurately reflect the demographics of the population in Los Angeles County. The Geffen Playhouse—the other regional theatre in Los Angeles—has produced even fewer plays by writers of color based on past productions listed on their website. As a result, these theatres struggle to get people of color in their seats. In contrast, the Latinx-specific theatres demonstrate that Latinx audiences are here and are healthy. Company of Angels’ audiences are consistently around 80 percent people of color.

Professional Development of Artists of Color
Another reason Latinx-specific theatres are vital is that since the dismantling of the culturally specific labs at Center Theater Group ten years ago, the Latinx theatres in Los Angeles are the only theatres dedicated to developing young Latinx playwrights, and other theatre artists. By this, I mean providing a space for writers to work with actors to develop and showcase their work, oftentimes before a live audience. At Company of Angels, we run a playwrights group that meets monthly and we produce a play festival of their work every year, in addition to giving many playwrights their first professional production. Playwrights Arena was an early producer of the work of Luis Alfaro, and Casa 0101 and the Latino Theater Company hold classes and workshops for young aspiring writers and actors. These theatres’ professional productions provide Latinx actors with the opportunity to hone their craft, build a resume, and get exposure.

Advancement of the American Theatre
According to the Pew Research Center, it is estimated that by 2040, groups that have historically been termed “minorities” will in fact comprise the majority of the US population. It is reasonable and logical to believe that the “American” stage should accurately and fairly reflect America in all its diversity. But this is not just an equity issue. In order for theatre to remain relevant into that near future, we need to infuse the American theatre canon with specific stories of those underrepresented communities who will soon make-up a majority of the nation’s population. In addition to creating a theatre that more accurately depicts the city and nation where we live, and thus maintains its relevance, new voices from these under-represented communities provide a vital prism through which to explore the human experience, giving us new insights to what it means to be American at this historical moment in time. This is important so that as America evolves and changes, theatre as an art form and tool of communication remains relevant and accessible. My goal as Artistic Director of Company of Angels Theater is to work to implement this vision. In the last ten years we have produced over forty original plays by artists of color. Seventeen of these plays were by Latinx playwrights, including Virginia Grise, Gabe Rivas Gomez, Ricardo Bracho, Jonathan Ceniceroz, Evangeline Ordaz, Cris Franco, Bernardo Solano and Oliver Mayer. The Latino Theater Company ensemble produces at least two plays a year. And this year they are producing plays by Diane Rodriguez and Jonathan Ceniceroz. Casa 0101 also produces a steady stream of Latinx written plays, which often include plays by founder Josefina Lopez. And Bilingual Foundation of the Arts is famous for its mounting of Spanish language classics including Federico Garcia Lorca, Lope de Vega, and Calderon de la Barca.

an actor and an actress performing a scene
Justin Huen and Marissa Garcia in Visitors Guide to Arivaca by Evangeline Ordaz, directed by Armando Molina. Photo via Company of Angels,

The Latinx-specific theatres in Los Angeles are working with a tiny fraction of the resources the large regional theatres have, though these regional theatres ultimately serve only a fraction of the city’s population. The two large regional theatres combined receive grants and contributions of $29 million dollars, while the Latinx specific theatres receive funding in the amount of $1.2 million dollars. (These numbers are from IRS public records and do not include ticket sales.)

There are many reasons for this imbalance. One is the Latinx theatres’ lack of access to resources. Smaller culturally-specific theatres that serve under-resourced communities do not in most cases have a deep-pocket donor base. These theatres’ smaller budgets lead to a Catch-22 situation where foundations will only grant a certain percentage of the theatre’s budget, insuring that their grants will always remain small. Small budgets can only sustain small theatres so ticket sales are also limited. And since maintaining access is often a priority, ticket prices at these theatres must remain low. The Latino Theater Company has four very large theatres, their largest being 496 seats. But the expense of producing in a theatre of this size has meant that the company has historically produced only two plays a year. The company rents out the space to other theatre companies for the rest of the year in order to shore up expenses and cover their costs of operation. It’s hopeful to note that this year the company is able to produce more than two Latinx play in their venues.

Should the larger theatre institutions in Los Angeles that receive the lion’s share of both government and foundation support bear the responsibility of reflecting the demographics of Los Angeles through their programming (and on their boards and staffs)? Or should the smaller culturally-specific theatres in Los Angeles receive a larger percentage of government and foundation support commensurate with the size of the population they serve? I believe the most productive response is to seek ways to transform the paradigm for funding from one that measures the size of the organization, to one that recognizes who is being served by an organization. It is incumbent upon all of us to hold the purveyors of government and foundation support accountable for allocation of grant dollars. Trying to make the larger regional theatres more responsive and to reflect the communities they reside in is a struggle that has been going on for decades. And the recent KCRW study states that with regard to the representation of people of color at The Taper, “Data is particularly depressing not only for its lack of representation but also for the lack of discernible historical progress.” However, it is significant to point out the current Taper season includes four out of five plays by writers of color. Is this an anomaly or a sign of discernable progress? Past data portends the Taper’s current season will provide nothing more than a spike for this year in a future graph. Our goals must involve the equitable distribution of financial support to the theatres that serve the 48.6 percent of Latinx residents of Los Angeles. Grants should fund those theatres that are currently doing what we are seeking from the larger regional theatres.

Theatre artists in Los Angeles are accustomed to the struggle for financial support that I describe here. It’s the norm for us. But we are sustained by our allegiance to the audiences who are hungry to see their stories told on Los Angeles stages. If we provide a space for these voices, we have an opportunity to animate and excite US American theatre, enrich its aesthetic, and thereby expand our reach to a more diverse audience. Such efforts can be met with financial support from those institutions that believe in the future of theatre in the US, and that include the vital element of equity in allocating their funding.